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​Brachycephalic airway syndrome

brachycephalic airway syndrome

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The disease is most common in brachycephalic breeds such as Pugs, French Bulldogs, Boston Terriers, English Bulldogs, and Shih Tzus. It is sometimes seen in cats with stuffy noses such as chinchillas and Himalayans. In addition, it is surprisingly not known that toy breeds such as Chihuahuas, Maltese, and Yorkshire terriers are also classified as brachycephalic breeds, so be careful if you experience similar symptoms.


Brachycephalic airway syndrome is a general term for obstructive airway disorders caused by the anatomy of the head and neck, including the flat face, round head, and short, thick neck typical of brachycephalic animals. Many are complicated by multiple diseases such as constricted nostrils (1), soft palate elongation (2), laryngeal chamber valgus (3) and laryngeal collapse (4), tracheal hypoplasia (5) or tracheal collapse (6). To do. In addition to the above-mentioned diseases with clear disease names, there are complex associations such as a thick tongue, an enlarged soft palate at the end, pharyngeal mucosa that protrudes into the oral cavity, and enlarged tonsils.

In a typical example, it develops soon after birth (genetic predisposition) and worsens in a chain reaction with a chronic course.


Symptoms include severe panting (ha ha ha, rapid breathing), hyperthermia, and especially when breathing in a clear and violent wheezing sound (a whistling sound of air passing through a narrow space similar to asthma), which can become severe. As a result, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, lethargy, difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite, and even fainting may occur. In addition to respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea are often present.


A stenosed nostril can be diagnosed with the naked eye, but otherwise a definitive diagnosis cannot be made without an endoscopy under anesthesia. However, testing-only anesthesia is extremely dangerous if people have severe respiratory problems. Therefore, as a differential diagnosis, in order to distinguish from other respiratory diseases, firstXDo a line check.


Brachycephalic airway syndrome cannot be cured with medical treatment. If it is done, the purpose is to alleviate the symptoms, and surgical treatment is necessary to cure it firmly. However, surgical treatment is possible for constricted nostrils, elongation of the soft palate, laryngeal chamber ectropion, tonsil swelling, and tracheal collapse, and laryngeal collapse is generally considered to be inoperable.

Harvey (1982), the improvement rate when resecting external nostril stenosis and excessive soft palate length was 96% in children younger than 1 year of age, and a high therapeutic effect was obtained. It is said that 69% of dogs who have been treated show a low improvement rate. This confirms that many diseases are linked and progress in a cascading manner, and from another point of view, surgery for nares stenosis and soft palate elongation should be performed as early as possible, especially before the age of 1 year. Therefore, we conclude that we can expect to stop the progression of the disease.

In many cases, owners of brachycephalic dogs do not realize that this is normal, despite the presence of pathological breathing. It is possible that the condition will gradually worsen, so early diagnosis and future-oriented decisions are required.

Treatment for brachycephalic airway syndrome in our hospital

Surgical treatment is the top priority for the above reasons that it cannot be cured by medical treatment and it is necessary to stop the progress of the disease.

For that purpose, a definitive diagnosis is necessary, and anesthesia is required, so at our hospital, general physical examination andXAfter distinguishing it from other respiratory diseases by line examination, endoscopy under anesthesia is performed for definitive diagnosis. Then perform all surgical procedures that can be performed under simultaneous anesthesia. We do not administer anesthesia just for the examination. Otherwise it can be life threatening.


If the onset is less than 1 year old, early surgical treatment is desirable in order to prevent complication of pathology. Since the symptoms worsen rapidly in high temperatures and humidity, try to limit going out in the summer and adjust the humidity and temperature. You should also avoid excessive excitement and try to maintain a healthy weight.

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